THEORY OF PUPPIES SURVIVAL
IN SMALL BREEDS BY ANNE SERANNE
This is a wonderful formula to give to newborn puppies to help in their
survival please read the entire page.I can recommend this to everyone from
my own personal experiences.
A THEORY OF PUPPY SURVIVAL IN SMALL BREEDS
By Ann Serann
Blood Sugar Insulin
Insulin Blood Sugar
Sugar, in the form of glucose (white corn syrup) can save the life of a
weak puppy; on the other hand, if incorrectly used, it can cause
HyPOglycemia, a disease which, like diabetes, is not normally inherited
but is induced by improper diet. To understand how sugar can save and
sugar can destroy, one must know a little about body chemistry.
Insulin, a hormone produced by a healthy pancreas, converts glucose into
energy; and if this energy is not immediately needed, changes it into
glycogen (body starch and fat) which is stored in the liver. Insulin not
only enables the body to keep a reserve of glycogen in supply but to
release it for energy when needed. This means that both insulin and
glycogen must be maintained in correct balance; if this balance is
upset, stress occurs.
When more sugar than needed is given to a young puppy, the insulin
production increases rapidly in its attempt to transform the excess into
glycogen, causing a rapid drop in blood sugar (or HyPOglycemia) to a
point where the puppy can lose consciousness. Prior to this, the puppy
urinates to a point of dehydration, and fat globules are discharged from
the body in the feces. If the puppy is to be saved, a ringer’s solution
containing potassium and sodium chlorides; injected by a veterinarian,
replaces the loss of fluids, restores the level of blood sugar, and
urinary functions become normal.
If too much sugar and starch is included in the diet of the dog over an
extended period of time the pancreas becomes tired and its cells are no
longer able to produce sufficient insulin to keep the blood sugar at a
tolerable level. A rapid rise in blood sugar takes place and, again
stress or unconsciousness results. This is known as HyPERglycemia or a
form of diabetes and explains why the diabetic must be supplied with
insulin to lower the blood sugar level. This knowledge enables us to use
glucose wisely and to our advantage in raising our puppies to healthy
A newborn’s hold on life is tenuous for the first week and anything that
upsets the delicate chemical balance of the puppies system can cause
illness and eventual death. At birth, puppies have no subcutaneous fat,
and the small supply of reserve glycogen in the liver is rapidly
depleted unless immediately restored via the dam’s milk.
Lactating in a bitch after parturition is often marginal for the first
couple of days. And many puppies literally starve to death. They may
have exhausted their limited supply of glycogen in their struggle to
enter this world and do not have enough energy left for the necessary
suction to extract the reluctant milk from the dam’s nipples.
About a year and a half ago, we were losing 30% of our puppies (7out of
20 to be exact). Some lived as long as 16 days before quietly giving up
their fragile lives. No cries of pain, no vomiting, no diarrhea, but at
the time of death, they weighed the same or less as when they were born
even though we had tried every imaginable supplementation and medication
as soon as they appeared to be losing weight and strength.
Then GAINES PROGRESS published an article entitled, “New Determination
for Puppy Survival,” by Dr David D. Van Sickle, which proved rather
conclusively that, if a puppy loses more than 10% of its birth weight
within the first 48 hours, its chance of survival is extremely poor
unless supplemental feedings are instituted.
Where had we gone wrong? We had begun supplementary feedings with an
excellent puppy formula after about 24 hours, when a weight loss was
noticeable to the eye; still our puppies died. Dr Van Sickle had made is
experiments with pointer pups. We were dealing with Yorkie pups.
Suddenly it became obvious that these tiny puppies had less reserve in
their systems than the larger breed to help them over the trauma of
birth; and by allowing them to exhaust their original supply of
glycogen, we may have caused deterioration of the pancreatic cells so
that no amount of supplementation could re-establish that essential
critical balance of insulin and glycogen to sustain life.
We decided not to wait for 48 hours or even 24 hours, and since
interpreting Dr. Van Sickle’s in our own way to our diminutive breed, we
have not lost a single puppy, As soon as the bitch is approaching
parturition, we make a 5% glucose solution by mixing one teaspoon white
corn syrup with a few grains each of sodium chloride (table salt) and
potassium chloride (salt substitute) with four tablespoons boiled water.
This resembles a Ringer’s glucose-sale fluid but, of course, cannot be
used for subcutaneous or intravenous injection because it is not
sterile. We put the solution into a dropper bottle. As soon as a whelp
is dry and breathing normally, it is weighed on a gram scale and given
five or six drops of the solution on its tongue. Even the weakest puppy
is able to accept each drop before the next is given. Then the puppy is
put with its dam for stimulation and warmth.
Every 4 hours we weigh the puppy, record the weight, and administer the
glucose solution, giving it as much as a dropper full if it will take
it, until it shows signs of gaining weight--Then every 8 hours until it
is 48 hours old. Usually even the weakest or smallest puppy in a litter
will begin to take hold and nurse strongly with good suction at the end
of 24 hours if not before.
No supplementary food is introduced into the puppy’s system except the
5% glucose for the first 48 hours. Energy and a reserve supply of
glycogen is what is needed at this point in the tentative life.
After this time, each puppy which has lost 10% or more of its birth
weight, is supplemented every 4 hours with the standard mixture of
Esbilac (one part Esbilac to three parts boiled water plus one teaspoon
corn syrup to each 8 tablespoons of the mixture (˝ cup). This reduces
the glucose content by 50%. The puppy’s weight is recorded at 8 hour
intervals. After 72 hours if a puppy is still not showing a consistent
weight gain on supplementation and its dam’s milk we add one egg yolk
per cup of Esbilac-corn syrup mixture and, at the end of one week,
should a puppy still need supplementation, we omit the corn syrup
entirely and substitute protein to the Esbilac-egg mixture in the form
of two teaspoons scraped raw beef. The time has now come when it is
necessary for a puppy to be able to manufacture its own glycogen without
depending on sugar to stimulate the pancreatic production of insulin. If
sugar is continued, the pancreas can become trigger-happy and whether
the blood sugar rises sharply (HyPERglycemia) or drops drastically
(HyPOglycemia), the results are the same--stress and possible
unconsciousness or even death.
When we begin the Esbilac supplemental feedings, we give up the dropper
bottle in favor of a nurser bottle and prefer a kitten nurser, which can
be purchased through Animal Specialties. Bottle feeding is just as fast
as tube feeding and is much more satisfying to both the puppy and the
breeder. The puppy’s suckling instinct is preserved and encouraged. It
can be completely lost if a puppy is constantly tube feed.
We have just raised a litter of another small breed--five unusually
small Shih Tzu puppies, following the above procedure. All of them lost
10% or more of their birth weight at the end of 48 hours and were
nursing strongly. Two others, each with a weight loss of 15%, were
supplemented for 8 days. The one with the greatest weight lose, and
incredible 25%, was supplemented for for 15 days. Her name is Touch N’
Go. She owes her life to our increased understanding of the essential
and delicate insulin-glycogen balance in puppies of small breeds.